I am not alone in wondering how it could be possible for so many highly educated and wealthy individuals to fall for a scam on the staggering scale of Bernard Madoff’s ponzi scheme. How could it be that a prominent and generally well respected individual like Bernard Madoff could fool so many people for as long as he did? More importantly, how can investors avoid falling for the next scam artist? While there were certainly warning signs as well as individuals such as Harry Markopolis who warned that Madoff’s enterprise was a ponzi scheme, for some reason individuals invested with his firm did not take action. This post explains how Madoff used psychology in his favor.